Latest Update: 31 March 2013
The human rights situation within Israel has remained broadly positive. Israeli Parliamentary elections took place, and were conducted in line with international standards. However Israel’s handling of the occupation and related human rights implications continued to cause concern. Notable events included the death of a Palestinian prisoner in Israeli detention, continued hunger strikes by Palestinian prisoners in Israeli detention and the issuing of the second report by the Turkel Commission calling for significant changes to the way allegations of violations of international law are investigated (see further detail on these below).
In the West Bank and East Jerusalem concerns remain about restrictions on Palestinian construction in Israeli-controlled Area C in the West Bank, and in East Jerusalem, and the impact these have on the viability of a future Palestinian State. The Israeli authorities have continued to demolish Palestinian property, with activity spiking in January. We also remain concerned about the Israeli Defence Force’s (IDF) use of live fire, which has resulted in the deaths of 12 Palestinians since January. Instances of Israeli settler violence against Palestinians and their property, and of violence directed at IDF forces and settlers by Palestinians, continued over the reporting period.
The humanitarian situation in Gaza is still precarious, in large part as a result of ongoing Israeli restrictions. While both sides have largely respected the ceasefire agreed on 21 November 2012, rockets were fired by Palestinian militants on two occasions and two Palestinians were shot near to the border fence. The de facto Hamas rulers in Gaza continue to abuse human rights. The Independent Commission for Human Rights in received 21 reports of torture and mistreatment in January and February. A detainee in Gaza was also sentenced to death in March in contravention of a moratorium imposed by President Abbas.
The second report of the official Turkel Commission, issued on 6 February, contains 18 recommendations on how Israel could improve the investigation of complaints stemming from armed conflict. If enacted, these would constitute a major overhaul of the current process. Aspects of the report were welcomed by Prime Minister Netanyahu and the recommendations broadly welcomed by NGOs as a means of improving IDF accountability. The UK has encouraged the Israeli authorities to implement the recommendations as a matter of urgency.
January saw the completion of the border fence with Egypt and a resulting drop in numbers of asylum seekers and economic migrants. While the fence itself is a sovereign right of Israel, Israel is still obligated to provide asylum to those meeting the requirements defined in international law.
On 27 January the Israeli Cabinet approved recommendations by Minister Begin to resolve Bedouin land claims within Israel, including for 62% of land claimed by Bedouin to remain under their control and for the majority of unrecognised villages to be recognised. Some practical aspects of implementation remain to be clarified, however. For example it is not clear how many of the unrecognised villages, inhabited by 90,000 Bedouin, will remain unrecognised and how many Bedouin will have to move. Over the reporting period the British Embassy in Tel Aviv engaged with Bedouin communities and the Israeli government on this issue and will continue to do so. We will monitor developments closely.
Palestinian prisoner Arafat Jaradat died in Israeli custody on 23 February. There were allegations, denied by the Israeli authorities, that he died as a result of torture. There are currently three parallel investigations in hand. The UK has made clear to the Israeli authorities the importance we attach to a full investigation into the circumstances surrounding his death, including the allegations of mistreatment. We continue to follow the case closely.
Hunger strikes by Palestinians held in detention by Israel continued. One hunger striker was released and deported to Gaza in March. Two prisoners ended their hunger strike. Samer Issawi continued his hunger strike and remains in a critical condition. Two further prisoners took up hunger strikes. Officials in the British Consulate General in Jerusalem continue to monitor the condition of Palestinian prisoners on hunger strike and are in regular contact with the Prisoners Affairs Ministry in the Palestinian Authority and relevant NGOs. The UK has lobbied the Israeli authorities for the rights of those on hunger strike to receive medical care of their choice and family visits, and has encouraged all sides to reach a solution that prevents loss of life.
On 20 March the IDF arrested 27 children in Hebron, following reports of stone-throwing. 20 of the children were under 12 years old and below the age of criminal responsibility. Their parents were not informed of their arrest, in contravention of Israeli Military Law. The British Embassy in Tel Aviv raised UK concerns at the arrests with the Ministry of Justice and National Security Council.
In March 2013 UNICEF published a disturbing report on children in Israeli military detention. This echoed many of the findings and recommendations made in an independent report written by leading British lawyers and funded by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office last year. Although the UK welcomes some positive recent steps made by the Israeli authorities, including reducing the length of time a Palestinian minor can be held in pre-trial detention or before being brought before a judge, we share many of the concerns raised in both reports and continue to press the Israeli authorities for further improvements, including the introduction of audio-visual recording of all interrogations.
Allegations of torture and mistreatment of detainees in Palestinian custody continued. The Palestinian National Human Rights Institution Independent Commission for Human Rights received 27 complaints of torture or mistreatment against detainees in the West Bank and 21 against detainees in Gaza between January and February 2013. Coverage of human rights abuses in Gaza is limited and the actual figures on torture and mistreatment there are likely to be higher. The UK regularly raises concerns regarding the treatment of detainees in Palestinian custody with the Palestinian Authorities, including with Prime Minister Fayyad on 3 March. UK officials in the OPTs are following closely the investigation into the death of a Palestinian in police custody on 1 March and will continue to include human rights training in our support to the Palestinian Security Forces as part of a US-led training programme.
Tensions remain across the West Bank, heightened by the death of Palestinian detainee Arafat Jaradat in February, with an increasing numbers of protests and violent incidents since January. During this period a total of 12 Palestinians were killed (including two children) and 1,315 injured by the IDF. According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA), two of these deaths occurred in Gaza, next to the border. Other people were shot during protests and some were killed trying to enter Israel illegally. The UK raised concerns with the Israelis regarding use of live fire by the IDF against civilians, and EU Heads of Mission in Jerusalem and Ramallah issued a statement in January registering concern at the six deaths which occurred in that month.
A number of Palestinian “protest villages”, set up in opposition to planned settlement expansion in the strategically important “E1” area near Jerusalem, were removed by Israeli authorities. The UK is supportive of the right of Palestinians to protest peacefully against the occupation.
The UN recorded 53 attacks by Israeli settlers on Palestinians resulting in injury or damage to property in January and February. Of particular concern was an incident on 10 January near the West Bank city of Nablus in which a group of armed settlers from nearby settlements raided agricultural areas next to Urif and Qusra villages, clashing with local residents and opening fire with live ammunition, injuring one Palestinian. A total of 285 olive trees were damaged or destroyed in the village.
The Israeli authorities continued to report violence in the West Bank and East Jerusalem by Palestinians against Israeli forces and civilians, with the Israel Security Agency reporting 221 such attacks in January and February, an increase compared to 2012, although no fatalities were reported. On 14 March six Israeli settlers were injured when stones were thrown at their car, causing an accident in which a two year old child was severely injured.
According to UN OCHA figures, between 1 January and 18 March, 157 Palestinian structures were demolished by Israeli authorities and 309 people displaced. The UN reported that the number of demolitions in January 2013 was three times the monthly average for 2012. In addition, on 19 January the Israeli authorities removed 14 Red Cross tents and confiscated emergency aid provided to displaced families in Palestinian Bedouin community of Hamamat Al Maleh. The area was declared a closed military zone. The confiscation occurred two days after the demolition of 46 structures in the two communities. The UK raised strong concerns over demolitions with the Israeli authorities. Ongoing settlement construction continues to erode the chances of a two-state solution.
There are continued concerns about freedom of speech within the OPTs. At the end of the reporting period Mamdouh Hamamreh, a journalist, was convicted for defaming President Abbas by a local Bethlehem Court. He was freed on orders of the President’s Office the day after being sentenced.
The UK deplores incitement to hatred or violence on both sides of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, including anything that could stir up hatred and prejudice in a region that needs a culture of peace and mutual respect, and raises such incidents with the relevant authorities. In the last quarter the British Consulate in Jerusalem investigated allegations of material praising suicide bombers being broadcast on Palestinian TV and the Embassy in Tel Aviv raised concerns over a leaked video of a Jewish Home party candidate advocating the destruction of the Dome of the Rock and replacing it with a Jewish temple. The UK is supporting training for Palestinian journalists and the creation of a media Code of Conduct that covers both Gaza and the West Bank.
A report published in February by the Council for Religious Institutions in the Holy Land found that incitement and extreme negative characterisations are very rare in both Israeli and Palestinian textbooks. However it identified a need for textbooks on each side to do more to promote a more positive portrayal of the other. We will discuss this further with the Israeli and Palestinian authorities.
The UK has continued to urge Israel to ease restrictions on the movement of people and goods in and out of Gaza which severely hamper the local economy. Egyptian-led ceasefire talks between Israel and Hamas continue, and there has been some easing of Israeli restrictions, including increasing Palestinian sea access off the coast of Gaza to six nautical miles, easing restrictions on access to agricultural land near border areas and easing restrictions to allow Qatari construction materials into Gaza for reconstruction efforts.
A rocket was fired from Gaza towards Israel on 26 February, for the first time since a ceasefire agreement was reached on 21 November 2012. The Minister for the Middle East, Alistair Burt MP, issued a statement saying that “we have consistently condemned the indiscriminate firing of rockets into Israel in violation of international humanitarian law” and calling on both parties to respect in full the November ceasefire. Further rockets were fired from Gaza during President Obama’s visit to the region. In response, the Israeli Authorities reduced Palestinian access to the sea off the coast of Gaza to three nautical miles.